The Claude Lockhart Clark Art & History Glossary of Terms (To the bottom) (Thumb) (Essays) (Think Then Act) (Main)

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z #

Select the first letter of the word from the list above to jump to appropriate section of the glossary. If the term you are looking for starts with a digit or symbol, choose the '#' link.

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Animal commonly referred to as an "ant-eater."

is the capitol city of Ghana.


Addis Ababa

is a city (1988 est. pop. 1,686,000), capital of Ethiopia. Addis Ababa is Ethiopia's largest city, its administrative and communications center, and the main trade center for coffee (Ethiopia's chief export), tobacco, grains, and hides; much of its commerce is shipped by rail to the port of DJIBOUTI. Addis Ababa became (1889) Ethiopia's capital and was captured (1936) by the Italians and made the capital of ITALIAN EAST AFRICA. It was retaken by the Ethiopians and Allies in 1941 and returned to Ethiopian rule. A modern city, it has been the site of many international conferences and organizations, including the ORGANIZATION OF AFRICAN UNITY. Notable buildings include Church of Ethiopia and Roman Catholic cathedrals. There aren't any Coptic Churches in Ethiopia (that stone church most authorities refer to is not a Coptic Church). The second seat of Christianity was under the Ethiopian Church. Information about Ethiopia's Chritian Dynasties and churches can be found at Ethiopian Crown.


A popular fruit.


is an uneven placement of a set of objects, values, or ideas in a sculpture, painting or environment in order to create balance. Example: a large object on one side of a composition is balanced by a small object placed on the opposite side (see symmetrical).

is a group regarded as pre-eminent or in the forefront with an invention and application of new techniques in a given field. They create enough interest in what they are doing and set a path for others to follow.

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is the largest state (27,119 square miles) of former West Germany, in the southern part of that Western division. Capital of Bavaria is Munich.





Bent Bar Coin (from India)

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Taxila Janapada (600-303 B.C.). This is a Silver, Satamana Bent Bar Coin with two septa-radiate marks at ends, Uniface Weight:11.3 gm (100ratti) Information Taken from Nupam's Webpage For The Indian Coins.

About 600 BC, in north western part of India, Takshashila or Taxila and Pushkalavati, became an important commercial centers for the trade with Mesopotamia. These wealthy satrapies (provinces) introduced a unique coinage to facilitate the trade. These were silver concave bars of 11 gms which are popularly called as `Taxila bent bars' or `Satamana bent bars'. Satmana or Shatamana represented 100 rattis of silver in weight (Shata means 100 while mana means unit). These silver bars were punched with two septa-radiate (seven arms) symbols, one at each end. These bent bars represents one of the earliest coins of India. Shown above is a fine example of Shatamana bent bar.

The earliest coins of India are commonly known as punch-marked coins. As the name suggests, these coins bear the symbols of various types, punched on pieces of silver of specific weight. Interestingly earliest Indian coins have no defined shapes and they were mostly uniface. Secondly, these coins lack any inscriptions written in contemporary languages and almost always struck in silver. These unique characters makes early Indian coins very different than their contemporaries in Greece. Many early historians believed that concept of coinage was introduced in India by Greeks. But unlike Indian punch-marked coins, Greek coins had inscriptions, they were round in shape, were stamped on both the sides and minted using silver, electrum and gold too. Today we are certain that the concept of coinage was invented in India independent of foreign influence which imparted the unique characteristics to these punch-marked coins, not seen in any other coins of the ancient world.

Ancient Indian coinage was based on `Karshapana' unit that consists of 32 rattis (3.3 grams of silver). A `Ratti' is equivalent to 0.11 gms which is the average weight of a Gunja seed (a bright scarlet colored seed). Subsidiary denominations of Karshapana like half Karshapana (16 ratti), quarter Karshapana (8 ratti) and 1/8 of Karshapana (4 ratti) were also minted. Shown below is a fine example of 1/8th of Karshapana which is as usual uniface. On obverse is septa-radiate single punch (identical to what is seen on two ends of Satamana bar).

Taxila Janapada
5th Century BC
silver, 1/8th Karshapana
Septa-radiate single punch Mark, Uniface
Weight: 1.4 gm (4 ratti)

Information Taken from Nupam's Webpage For The Indian Coins.





Bida Glass Beads (from Nigeria)

bead strands

The beads shown in the picture above were not made in Europe. These glass beads were made in Africa, by the Nupe people living in Northern Nigeria. Africans were making glass beads long before Europeans learned the trade. The beads Africans made were made for their own domestic use and for trade. They traded beads along with other items of exchange to obtain things that they wanted.

Europeans made beads for an entirely different reason. They made beads to make money. Venecians were coin collectors not bead collectors. Venice was the top trade center and manufacturing center for glass in Europe. England and other colonial powers bought glass beads to trade in areas of the world where coins were not understood.





Silver Bir (from Ethiopia)

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This is a silver coin depicting Emperor Menelik II. It represents one bir and was minted in Addis Ababa, 1896. On the front side of the coin Menelik's portrait is right side up, while on the reverse side the lion is depicted upside down. Note: The left font leg of the lion is raised.

Silver Ya Bir Alad [1/2 Bir] (from Ethiopia)

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This 1/2 Bir was struck in an Addis Ababa mint between 1884 and 1889. The dies for these coins were cut in Paris then the coins were struck in Ethiopia.

Silver Gersh (from Ethiopia)

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This silver Gersh coin was struck in an Addis Ababa mint between 1897 and 1903.

Copper Ya Gersh Rub [1/4 Gersh] (from Ethiopia)

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The copper 1/4 Gersh was struck in an Addis Ababa mint about 1887.

Copper Ya Bir 1/32 [1/32 Bir] (from Ethiopia)

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The copper 1/32 Bir was struck in an Addis Ababa mint between 1922 and 1931.

By having the mint in a central location Ethiopians were able to cut down on forgeries.

Ehiopians saved money by using some of the same dies to strike other coin denominations in other metals and advanced years.

These coins are from the Booth Collection





Black Panther Party

Black Panther Party Of Self Defense
Was the brain child of of one man; Supreme Commander and Minister Of Defense Dr. Huey P. Newton. In the beginning, the party had three founders; Huey P. Newton, Bobby Seales and a Japanese American named Richard Ioki -----. Ioki dropped out of the party early. The party was developed around concerns of the disenfranchised lumpenproletariat; first on a national level in 1966 and by 1972 on an international level. The targeted group among the proletariat was the African American poor whom were considered to be the avant-garde.

Berlin Conference of 1884-1885

Otto von Bismarck was the principal architect of the Berlin Conference.

Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 to Divide Africa
From Matt Rosenberg, Your Guide to Geography.

The Colonization of the Continent by European Powers

"The Berlin Conference was Africa's undoing in more ways than one. The colonial powers superimposed their domains on the African continent. By the time independence returned to Africa in 1950, the realm had acquired a legacy of political fragmentation that could neither be eliminated nor made to operate satisfactorily."*

In 1884 at the request of Portugal, German chancellor Otto von Bismark called together the major western powers of the world to negotiate questions and end confusion over the control of Africa. Bismark appreciated the opportunity to expand Germany's sphere of influence over Africa and desired to force Germany's rivals to struggle with one another for territory.

At the time of the conference, 80% of Africa remained under traditional and local control.

What ultimately resulted was a hodgepodge of geometric boundaries that divided Africa into fifty irregular countries. This new map of the continent was superimposed over the one thousand indigenous cultures and regions of Africa. The new countries lacked rhyme or reason and divided coherent groups of people and merged together disparate groups who really did not get along.

Fourteen countries were represented by a plethora of ambassadors when the conference opened in Berlin on November 15, 1884. The countries represented at the time included Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway (unified from 1814-1905), Turkey, and the United States of America. Of these fourteen nations, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Portugal were the major players in the conference, controlling most of colonial Africa at the time.

The initial task of the conference was to agree that the Congo River and Niger River mouths and basins would be considered neutral and open to trade. Despite its neutrality, part of the Congo Basin became a personal kingdom for Belgium's King Leopold II and under his rule, over half of the region's population died.

At the time of the conference, only the coastal areas of Africa were colonized by the European powers. At the Berlin Conference the European colonial powers scrambled to gain control over the interior of the continent. The conference lasted until February 26, 1885 - a three month period where colonial powers haggled over geometric boundaries in the interior of the continent, disregarding the cultural and linguistic boundaries already established by the indigenous African population.

Following the conference, the give and take continued. By 1914, the conference participants had fully divided Africa among themselves into fifty countries.

Major colonial holdings included:

Great Britain desired a Cape-to-Cairo collection of colonies and almost succeeded though their control of Egypt, Sudan (Anglo-Egyptian Sudan), Uganda, Kenya (British East Africa), South Africa, and Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana (Rhodesia). The British also controlled Nigeria and Ghana (Gold Coast). France took much of western Africa, from Mauritania to Chad (French West Africa) and Gabon and the Republic of Congo (French Equatorial Africa). Belgium and King Leopold II controlled the Democratic Republic of Congo (Belgian Congo). Portugal took Mozambique in the east and Angola in the west. Italy's holdings were Somalia (Italian Somaliland) and a portion of Ethiopia. Germany took Namibia (German Southwest Africa) and Tanzania (German East Africa). Spain claimed the smallest territory - Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni).

By Matt T. Rosenberg -- A geographer, a Director of Emergency Services for the American Red Cross, and the author of the Geography Bee Complete Preparation Handbook and The Handy

Berlin Peace Settlement of 1884-1885

The Congress of Berlin (1884-1885) by Jim Jones (Copyright 2003, All Rights Reserved) at West Chester University


The Congress of Berlin was not the start of the "Scramble for Africa," but it laid down the rules that governed the European conquest of Africa for the next fifteen years. It was unusual because international conferences were usually held to sort out the aftermath of a war, but almost never to settle problems before they led to war. But all of the major powers had reasons to attend, especially France, Britain and the new powerhouse, Germany. Although there were many issues at stake, the most important one was the future of the Congo River basin.


The main dispute among Europeans was over navigation and commercial rights in the Congo River basin. The first Europeans to claim the area were the Portuguese who explored the mouth of the river in the 15th century. Although the Upper Congo River was navigable for hundreds of miles, a series of waterfalls made it imposible for ships to reach the upper part of the river directly from the Altantic Ocean.

The Portuguese claims went unchallenged for several centuries until French naval officer Pierre-Paul-François de Brazza-Savorgnan (known simply as Savorgnan de Brazza) began to explore the area. From 1875-1878, he followed the Ogoué River (located north of the Congo) upstream in search of an alternate route to the Upper Congo River that avoided Portuguese territory. Although he failed on his first attempts, tried again in 1879-1882 and and succeeded in reaching the Congo River by following the Ogoué River, proceeding overland to the Lefini River, a tributary of the Congo. During this expedition, he signed a treaty with the chief of the Batéké people who lived on the north side of the Upper Congo River. The treaty, which was signed on September 10, 1880, granted France a protectorate over the Batéké land including a stretch of the north bank of the Upper Congo River at Ntambo (known as Stanley Pool during the colonial period and Malebo Pool since independence).

Before Savorgnan de Brazza left, he placed the new post under the command of a Senegalese sergeant named Malamine and two other Senegalese soldiers, then returned to the coast by following along the Congo itself. Along the way, Savorgnan de Brazza met H. M. Stanley, who was leading an expedition from the Atlantic Coast to Ntambo on behalf of his employer, King Leopold of Belgium. Stanley was enraged to learn that the Frenchman had beaten him to the Upper Congo and when he arrived at Ntambo he tried to intimidate Malamine and his soldiers into leaving. The Senegalese refused to leave and in 1883, Savorgnan de Brazza returned with a larger force to organize the colony that became the French Congo.

The British had no direct claim on the Congo basin, nor did they have any particularly need for one. Their empire was based in Asia and their African interests were solely intended to safeguard communication with India. On the other hand, the British had benefitted from close relations with the Portuguese, so they acquired commercial rights in their colonies in exchange for protecting the Portuguese claims against encroachment by other Europeans.

On February 26, 1884 Britain and Portugal signed a treaty that reserved navigation rights on the Congo River to Britain alone, in exchange for Britain's support for Portuguese control of the mouth of the river. The treaty angered all of the other major European powers, and in particular, prevented the French from taking advantage of de Brazza's treaties. Although international protest forced the Portuguese and British to abandon their treaty on June 26, the issue remained unresolved. It became one of the reasons to call the Congress of Berlin.


Germany's Bismarck took advantage of the diplomatic outcry over the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty to call an international conference that met in Berlin from November 15, 1884 to February 26, 1885. Bismarck's initiative came as something of a surprise because Germany was not a major colonial power, possessing only a few claims based on a Lutheran mission in Southwest Africa and a bundle of treaties collected by private adventurer Karl Peters. Yet Bismarck was always looking for ways to strengthen his new country, so he found a number of reasons to hold the conference.

France was still hostile after its defeat in the Franco- Prussian War (unlike Austria, which had reconciled with Prussia after its 1866 defeat), and Bismarck wanted to improve Franco- German relations. In particular, by encouraging French colonialism, Bismarck hoped the French would forget about their desire for revenge and the restoration of Alsace-Lorraine. By hosting an international conference, it conferred prestige on the German government which was only thirteen years old at the time.

The German missionaries in Southwest Africa, Karl Peters in East Africa and German merchants in Togo and Cameroon had begun to seek the German government's support. Although Bismarck generally considered colonies as expensive and useless, he hoped to use the conference as an inexpensive way to ratify the existing German position in Africa. Bismarck hoped that discussions about free trade and free navigation would increase hostility between France and England that had begun with the 1882 English takeover of the Suez Canal.

The Berlin Congress opened on November 15, 1884, and every European country sent a representative except Switzerland. Even the US sent a representative, and Leopold II of Belgium attended as the president of the "International Association of the Congo." However, no Africans attended, not even from Morocco, Liberia or Ethiopia, which were independent nations at the time. Over the next three months, the delegates went beyond their original agenda--to regulate navigation on the Congo River--to create a blueprint for the subsequent European conquest of Africa.


[See full text of the General Act of the Congress of Berlin of 1885] The Congress produced the Berlin Act of 1885 which established the "conventional basin of the Congo" (bigger than the geographical basin) and opened it to European free trade, made it neutral in times of war and promoted efforts to end the slave trade. This was an unprecedented piece of international diplomacy, since it included so many different countries. The closest legal antecedents were multinational agreements made in 1815 at the Treaty of Vienna to control navigation on the Danube and Rhine Rivers.

The most important consequence of the Berlin Act was the reduction of tensions that had resulted from the French explorations in the Congo basin (de Brazza, 1876-1877), the establishment of Belgian posts in the Congo (1879-1884), the French invasion of Tunisia (1881), and the British takeover of Egypt (1882). In essence, the representatives agreed that rivalries over African soil were not serious enough to justify a war between European nations.

Among the provisions of the Berlin Act . . .

The principle of the freedom of navigation was established on the Niger and Congo Rivers, without prejudice to existing establishments. In practice, this meant that everyone could sail on the two rivers, but they had to pay the owners of existing posts for the right to dock and trade there. The limits of the Portuguese claims in Angola and Mozambique were defined, and French claims along the Congo River were recognized. Leopold's "International Association of the Congo" was recognized as the de facto government of the Congo basin, and the territory was renamed "The Congo Free State."

In the long run, the Berlin Congress stimulated the "Scramble for Africa" by establishing rules for the recognition of European claims. In brief, after signing the Berlin Act, a European nation could not longer simply raise its flag along the African coast and claim everything that lay behind it in the hinterland. Instead, a European colonial power had to physically occupy whatever it claimed with troops, missionaries, merchants, or better yet, railroads, forts and buildings.

Britain, as the dominant naval power in the world, got most of what it wanted. The main thing was European recognition of their claim in Egypt, but the British government was also satisfied by the internationalization of the Congo. The agreement kept France from obtaining complete control in the Congo basin, and France "compensated" Britain by recognizing Britain's dominant position on the Lower and Middle Niger River. On the other hand, the concept of physical presence needed to guarantee "effective occupation" was a direct challenge to the British practice of obtaining influence without substantial financial investment.

If one ignores Africans (as the conference participants did), then Portugal was certainly the biggest loser. Not only did it lose the right to restrict access to the Congo basin, the need to physically occupy territory placed most of their claims in southern Africa at risk. It eventually opened the way for British claims to land between Portuguese Angola and Mozambique.

Germany is generally considered to have emerged the winner from the Berlin Congress. The Congress demarcated German territory in Africa, confirming Germany as a major player at the expense of the Sultan of Zanzibar. The Congress accepted Bismarck's declaration of a protectorate over East African territory mentioned in Karl Peter's treaties. The Anglo-German Treaty of 1886 ratified the protectorate by dividing Kenya (British) from Tanganyika (German) and allowing Zanzibar to remain independent and in control of a ten-mile deep coastal strip.





Bridge Dragon Coin

Western Zhou Dynasty bronze bridge money (Chou, 1122-770 BC). Dragon heads on both sides.
Size: 140 x 65 mm
Thickness: 1.3 mm (without board)
Weight: 27.6 g

Chinese Coinage Web Site





British African Colonial Coins

British African Coins from the Dr.
Chukwurah Emeagwali Collection

Dr. Emeagwali says, "The coins in use in my early years - 'I was born in British West Africa, as indicated in these coins."

The collection shown above consist of pennies, half penneies, one tenth of a pennies and shillings. There are several coins representing the 1959 Federation of Nigeria - One year before its independance in 1960. One East African penny with elephant tusks can be seen second from the bottom on the right side.





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is a cutting tool used in engraving metal and wood plates to produce an intaglio print. A burin is a cutting tool used in producing a burr on metal. The same tool is also called a graver.

a protruding jagged, or ragged edge raised on metal during drilling, shearing, puncturing, plowing, or engraving of metal.

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This is a term artist use when they refer to almost any material made of cloth used as a surface to paint on. Generally linen, or cotton-----

is a form of intaglio printing.






Carved Shell Cowrie Substitute Coin

Late Shang Dynasty, ca 1766-1122BC, Substitute for Cowrie money hand carved from shell, 23mm long by 17mm at widest point, 2 holes seen from back for stringing, Coole 75-76 var., SCARCE, nice example....taken from Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities Collection





Civil Disobedience (see Henry David Thoreau)

Civil Rights Movement
The United States Civil Rights movement began February 1, 1950 when 4 freshmen college students began the first student nonviolent sit-ins at a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. With in three months, thousands of college students; European and African American, were coming to Greensboro, taking part in the training and development of a New Civil Rights Movement. Woolworth lunch counter was integrated with-in three months, and by the end of that first year"... hotels, movie theaters, library [facilities], super markets, amusement parks and a host of ....similar establishments" were integrated as well. That same year, ninety miles to the south in Monroe North Carolina, a young man with a slightly different philosophy, by the name of Robert Franklin Williams, was running for Mayor of Monroe. By the time the Montgomery, Alabama "Bus Boycott" began in 1955. The student civil rights movement had been in full swing for five years and had already set the standards for organizing large numbers of people into a peaceful demonstration.

Crisis Magazine-
was the first African American publication to publish articles on African American Art. Dr. William Edward Burghadt DuBois wrote the first art article in 1915 in response to a bronze sculpture produced by Meta Warick Fuller in 1914. DuBois was the founder and editor of Crisis Magazine, at that time.

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functions are controlled by binary codes.

Driskell, David C.
AUTHOR: He authored 5 exhibition books, 40 Catalogs from exhibitions he has Curated on African American Art.

TEACHER: Between 1955 and 1997 Driskell taught art at Talladega College Howard and Fisk Universities. He was visiting professor of Art at Bowdoin College, University of Michigan, Queens College, and Obafemi Awolowo (formerly University of Ife) in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

He joined the Art. Department faculty at the University of Maryland in 1977 and served as its chairman from '78 to '83. In 1995 he received the DISTINGUISHED UNIVERSITY OF PROFESSOR OF ART, at the University of Maryland, a title he still holds. To the Bottom

ART HISTORICAL/CONSULTANT: He is cited as one of the world's leading authorities on African American Art.

Driskell is one of the commissioners of the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art and the Amistad Research Center Since 1977 he has served as Cultural advisor to Camille and Bill Cosby and curator of the Cosby Collection of Fine Arts.

In 1995 President and Mrs. Clinton asked Driskell to select an art work by an African American artist for permanent display in the White House. Henry O. Tanner's SAND DUNES AT SUNSET: ATLANTIC CITY was unveiled and installed in a ceremony in the Garden Room on October 29, 1996.

In 1989 Driskell's contribution t.o the interpretation of African American art history in the documentary HIDDEN HERITAGE, The Roots of African American Painting was produced by CUE Films of London for British Television.

In 1977 he wrote and narrated an hour long program on African Americana HIDDEN HERITAGE, commissioned by CBS television. It won a CBS award and appeared for three consecutive years following its initial airing.

He Curates the Bicentennial Exhibition for the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, entitled TWO CENTURIES OF BLACK AMERICAN ART: 1750-1950. Published by Alfred Knoff, 1976. Other exhibitions with accompanying books include:





Driskell has lectured at many art institutions and universities in America ropers Africa and South America. To mention a few include: The National Gallery of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, The Brooklyn Museums art Institute of Chicago, Harvard University, Haverford College, University of California at Berkeley.

In 1996, 65 stained glass windows, designed by Driskell, were installed in the newly renovated Deforest Chapel at Talladega College his first teaching assignment in 1955, in Talladega Alabama.

Driskell, a Prolific painter, works have been exhibited in many galleries and museums.; and requests for his newer works continue to be sought. for display.

He maintains three residence with his wife Thelma, Hyattsville, MD., Falmouth, Maine and New York City.

Credit and Notes: painting titled "MASK WITH LEAVES", 1997, mixed media, size is 14" X 11". From the Margaret H. Traylor collection.

DuBois, William Edward Burghadt
was known as the "Negro Leader In A Time Of Crisis".
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Egyptian Glass Beads-

XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXthey refer to almost any material made of cloth used as a surface to paint on. Generally linen, or cotton-----





towering above others; projecting; prominent and outstanding.

Europe & Africa in the 19th Century by Jim Jones (Copyright 2003, All Rights Reserved) at West Chester University


In the late 19th century, between roughly 1875 and 1900, a handful of European nations conquered most of Africa. Since this came after more than three centuries of relatively cooperative trading activity between Europeans and Africans, it represents a significant departure in world history. This "Age of Imperialism" also had long-range consequences including the spread of European languages around the globe, the creation of borders that sparked many subsequent conflicts, and the construction of institutions that made globalization possible. As a consequence, this course begins with an examination of European and African societies in the 19th century in order to determine why Europeans chose to invade Africa in the late 19th century.


By the mid-19th century, Europe had undergone two major changes that affected their beliefs about themselves. In his book A Generation of Materialism, 1871-1900 (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1941), Carlton J. H. Hayes listed the following major developments in Europe:

the French Revolution introduced the idea of the nation- state as an organizing concept for politics, and the Napoleonic Wars showed the strength of the nation-state the rise of Liberalism supported a belief in progress and change the Industrial Revolution changed how people worked and acquired goods, the number of goods in circulation, and economic relationship between industrialized and non-industrialized regions of the world art and religion adapted to the new emphasis on materialism new techniques for communication and organization gave rise to the concept of "the masses" as a political and economic force Carrington went on to say that these changes led to the "resurgence of economic nationalism and national imperialism." they initiated a period of intense national competition that culminated in two world wars in the 20th century. That competition, coming at the end of the 19th century, provided a direct challenge to the balance-of-power system created in 1815 to keep the peace in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.

Confident in the superiority of their culture and institutions, Europeans looked for the same in the rest of the world, and related to other societies as if they existed on a continuum from "primitive" to "developed." In assigning these positions, Europeans looked especially at the level of material culture and the size of political institutions. Northern Europeans occupied the top end of the continuum while southern Europeans, Arabs, Chinese, Native Americans and other groups occupied lower positions. Black non-Muslim Africans were near the bottom, just ahead of Australian aborigines.


Three centuries of the slave trade had taught Europeans that Africans were inferior, and that helped to justify the imperialism in the minds of many Europeans. Even slave abolitionists contributed to this by arguing that Africans had to be "protected" from slavers; i.e. they couldn't take care of themselves. The limited information brought back to Europe by explorers like Mungo Park and Henry Morton Stanley made Africans appear warlike and/or childlike, and they wrote books and gave lectures that popularized the notion of Africa as "the dark continent." For example, this relatively favorable quotation from a first-time visitor to Africa illustrates the prevailing beliefs among Europeans:

"As we steamed into the estuary of Sierra Leone on November 18th [1889], we found Africa exactly as books of travel had led us to anticipate--a land of excessive heat, lofty palm-trees, gigantic baobabs, and naked savages. At five o'clock we dropped anchor at Free Town, called, on account of its deadly fevers, the `white man's grave.' Immediately, our vessel was surrounded by boats filled with men and women, shouting, jabbering, laughing, quarrelling, and even fighting. ... Without exception it was the most confusedly excited and noisy lot of humanity I have ever seen." Source: William Harvey Brown, On the South African Frontier: The Adventures and Observations of an American in Mashonaland and Matabeleland (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1970; London: Sampson Low, Marstan & Co., 1899), 3.

Victorian philosophers even had an explanation for African backwardness. According to late 19th century science, human development took place in three stages: savagery, marked by hunting and gathering; barbarism accompanied by the beginning of settled agriculture and civilization which required the development of commerce. European scientists believed that Africa were stuck in the stage of barbarism because they lived in a place with such good soil and climate that it provided "tropical abundance." The ease of life in Africa made Africans fat and lazy. For proof, Europeans relied on data about the work habits of African-American slaves (who had their own reasons for working "slow"), and they ignored how seasons determined the rhythm of work for African farmers.


Naturally, Africans had a somewhat different understanding of their culture and institutions in the 19th century. While it is impossible to generalize about the entire continent in a few sentences, it is accurate to say that the continent that produced the first humans, and which developed universities as early as the 11th century, was in a state of turmoil by the 19th century. Much of the cause can be traced to the resumption of regular contacts with Europeans beginning in the 15th century and the impact of European expansion on the Muslim world. Among the consequences were ...

the development of the overseas slave trade which created African states whose power was based on guns the end of the overseas slave trade in the early 19th century, undermining coastal states Muslim reform movements that developed in response to the adoption of some aspects of European modernization by the Ottoman Empire, the center of the Muslim political world the expansion of the trade in slaves and ivory along the East African coast following efforts to end the slave trade in West Africa the proliferation of guns obtained from European and (to a lesser extent) Muslim sources European military officers often had a more realistic view of Africa, at least after serving for a few years. As the French learned in West Africa, the coastal states in Senegal were small and relatively weak, but beyond the town of Mèdine in the Upper Senegal River Valley, two large interior states were still healthy enough to block French efforts for roughly forty years. The leaders of one of them, Samory Touré, created an empire by employing smiths to manufacture guns, using Islam as a unifying ideology and making an alliance with "the business community" of long distance traders.


In the late 19th century, the technological gap between Europeans and Africans, already present since the 16th century, began to widen at a faster pace. The first successful use of gunpowder was by Ottoman forces at Constantinople in 1453, and its use spread to Europe more so than to Africa. Europeans adapted the technology until firearms were small enough to mount in ships or be carried by foot soldiers. They also improved the speed and economy of firearms production, making them more plentiful.

European society was also more highly militarized as a result of its recent experience during the Napoleonic and Crimean Wars. The Napoleonic Wars lasted nearly a quarter century, involved all parts of Europe as well as parts of Africa and the Americas, and popularized Egyptian culture, especially in France. The Crimean War, which was fought in the Black Sea from 1853 to 1856, provided a generation of officers who craved military action and a testing grounds for technologies that proved their worth in colonizing Africa.

Other technological changes affected the timing and process of imperialism. The British learned in 1857 how railroads and the telegraph could enable a relatively small number of British personnel to survive a rebellion in India, Advances in medical science, particularly in the field of tropical disease, made it safer for Europeans to go to Africa, and consequently easier (and cheaper) for the government, churches, military and commercial firms to recruit European staff people. Advances in firearms, particularly developments with the repeating rifle, machine gun and lightweight artillery, enabled smaller military units to defeat larger numbers of opponents, further reducing the cost of conquest. Improved steam engines gave steamships larger capacities by requiring less space for fuel, while railroads extended the reach of European commerce beyond the coasts.

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Fish Money from Western Zhou Dynasty in China

CC119. Western Chou Dynasty, 1122-770 BC, Bronze YU BI(Fish Money), Opitz 46 var, Coole 6921-34, several examples as follows: CC119A. variety with fins (including tail), 82mm total length, nice design with hole at eye for stringing, slightly crusty green patina, overall not bad and a type not usually seen, SCARCE this nice, Very Fine....taken from Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities Collection





"Freedom Morning"
is the title of an oil painting by Claude Clark

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General Act of the Congress of Berlin of 1885



In the Name of God Almighty.

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India; His Majesty the German Emperor, King of Prussia; His Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia, etc, and Apostolic King of Hungary; His Majesty the King of the Belgians; His Majesty the King of Denmark; His Majesty the King of Spain; the President of the United States of America; the President of the French Republic; His Majesty the King of Italy; His Majesty the King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxemburg, etc; His Majesty the King of Portugal and the Algarves, etc; His Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias; His Majesty the King of Sweden and Norway, etc; and His Majesty the Emperor of the Ottomans,

WISHING, in a spirit of good and mutual accord, to regulate the conditions most favourable to the development of trade and civilization in certain regions of Africa, and to assure to all nations the advantages of free navigation on the two chief rivers of Africa flowing into the Atlantic Ocean;

BEING DESIROUS, on the other hand, to obviate the misunderstanding and disputes which might in future arise from new acts of occupation (prises de possession) on the coast of Africa; and concerned, at the same time, as to the means of furthering the moral and material well-being of the native populations;

HAVE RESOLVED, on the invitation addressed to them by the Imperial Government of Germany, in agreement with the Government of the French Republic, to meet for those purposes in Conference at Berlin, and have appointed as their Plenipotentiaries, to wit:

[Names of plenipotentiaries not listed here.]

Who, being provided with full powers, which have been found in good and due form, have successively discussed and adopted:

1. A Declaration relative to freedom of trade in the basin of the Congo, its embouchures and circumjacent regions, with other provisions connected therewith.

2. A Declaration relative to the slave trade, and the operations by sea or land which furnish slaves to that trade.

3. A Declaration relative to the neutrality of the territories comprised in the Conventional basin of the Congo.

4. An Act of Navigation for the Congo, which, while having regard to local circumstances, extends to this river, its affluents, and the waters in its system (eaux qui leur sont assimilées), the general principles enunciated in Articles CVIII and CXVI of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, and intended to regulate, as between the Signatory Powers of that Act, the free navigation of the waterways separating or traversing several States - these said principles having since then been applied by agreement to certain rivers of Europe and America, but especially to the Danube, with the modifications stipulated by the Treaties of Paris (1856), of Berlin (1878), and of London (1871 and 1883).

5. An Act of Navigation for the Niger, which, while likewise having regard to local circumstances, extends to this river and its affluents the same principles as set forth in Articles CVIII and CXVI of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna.

6. A Declaration introducing into international relations certain uniform rules with reference to future occupations on the coast of the African Continent.

And deeming it expedient that all these several documents should be combined in one single instrument, they (the Signatory Powers) have collected them into one General Act, composed of the following Articles:



Article I

The trade of all nations shall enjoy complete freedom-

1. In all the regions forming the basin of the Congo and its outlets. This basin is bounded by the watersheds (or mountain ridges) of the adjacent basins, namely, in particular, those of the Niari, the Ogowé, the Schari, and the Nile, on the north; by the eastern watershed line of the affluents of Lake Tanganyika on the east; and by the watersheds of the basins of the Zambesi and the Logé on the south. It therefore comprises all the regions watered by the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries.

2. In the maritime zone extending along the Atlantic Ocean from the parallel situated in 2º30' of south latitude to the mouth of the Logé.

The northern boundary will follow the parallel situated in 2º30' from the coast to the point where it meets the geographical basin of the Congo, avoiding the basin of the Ogowé, to which the provisions of the present Act do not apply.

The southern boundary will follow the course of the Logé to its source, and thence pass eastwards till it joins the geographical basin of the Congo.

3. In the zone stretching eastwards from the Congo Basin, as above defined, to the Indian Ocean from 5 degrees of north latitude to the mouth of the Zambesi in the south, from which point the line of demarcation will ascend the Zambesi to 5 miles above its confluence with the Shiré, and then follow the watershed between the affluents of Lake Nyassa and those of the Zambesi, till at last it reaches the watershed between the waters of the Zambesi and the Congo.

It is expressly recognized that in extending the principle of free trade to this eastern zone the Conference Powers only undertake engagements for themselves, and that in the territories belonging to an independent Sovereign State this principle shall only be applicable in so far as it is approved by such State. But the Powers agree to use their good offices with the Governments established on the African shore of the Indian Ocean for the purpose of obtaining such approval, and in any case of securing the most favourable conditions to the transit (traffic) of all nations.

Article II

All flags, without distinction of nationality, shall have free access to the whole of the coastline of the territories above enumerated, to the rivers there running into the sea, to all the waters of the Congo and its affluents, including the lakes, and to all the ports situate on the banks of these waters, as well as to all canals which may in future be constructed with intent to unite the watercourses or lakes within the entire area of the territories described in Article I. Those trading under such flags may engage in all sorts of transport, and carry on the coasting trade by sea and river, as well as boat traffic, on the same footing as if they were subjects.

Article III

Wares, of whatever origin, imported into these regions, under whatsoever flag, by sea or river, or overland, shall be subject to no other taxes than such as may be levied as fair compensation for expenditure in the interests of trade, and which for this reason must be equally borne by the subjects themselves and by foreigners of all nationalities. All differential dues on vessels, as well as on merchandise, are forbidden.

Article IV

Merchandise imported into these regions shall remain free from import and transit dues.

The Powers reserve to themselves to determine after the lapse of twenty years whether this freedom of import shall be retained or not.

Article V

No Power which exercises or shall exercise sovereign rights in the abovementioned regions shall be allowed to grant therein a monopoly or favour of any kind in matters of trade.

Foreigners, without distinction, shall enjoy protection of their persons and property, as well as the right of acquiring and transferring movable and immovable possessions; and national rights and treatment in the exercise of their professions.


Article VI

All the Powers exercising sovereign rights or influence in the aforesaid territories bind themselves to watch over the preservation of the native tribes, and to care for the improvement of the conditions of their moral and material well-being, and to help in suppressing slavery, and especially the slave trade. They shall, without distinction of creed or nation, protect and favour all religious, scientific or charitable institutions and undertakings created and organized for the above ends, or which aim at instructing the natives and bringing home to them the blessings of civilization.

Christian missionaries, scientists and explorers, with their followers, property and collections, shall likewise be the objects of especial protection.

Freedom of conscience and religious toleration are expressly guaranteed to the natives, no less than to subjects and to foreigners. The free and public exercise of all forms of divine worship, and the right to build edifices for religious purposes, and to organize religious missions belonging to all creeds, shall not be limited or fettered in any way whatsoever.


Article VII

The Convention of the Universal Postal Union, as revised at Paris 1 June 1878, shall be applied to the Conventional basin of the Congo.

The Powers who therein do or shall exercise rights of sovereignty or Protectorate engage, as soon as circumstances permit them, to take the measures necessary for the carrying out of the preceding provision.


Article VIII

In all parts of the territory had in view by the present Declaration, where no Power shall exercise rights of sovereignty or Protectorate, the International Navigation Commission of the Congo, instituted in virtue of Article XVII, shall be charged with supervising the application of the principles proclaimed and perpetuated (consacrés) by this Declaration.

In all cases of difference arising relative to the application of the principles established by the present Declaration, the Governments concerned may agree to appeal to the good offices of the International Commission, by submitting to it an examination of the facts which shall have occasioned these differences.



Article IX

Seeing that trading in slaves is forbidden in conformity with the principles of international law as recognized by the Signatory Powers, and seeing also that the operations, which, by sea or land, furnish slaves to trade, ought likewise to be regarded as forbidden, the Powers which do or shall exercise sovereign rights or influence in the territories forming the Conventional basin of the Congo declare that these territories may not serve as a market or means of transit for the trade in slaves, of whatever race they may be. Each of the Powers binds itself to employ all the means at its disposal for putting an end to this trade and for punishing those who engage in it.



Article X

In order to give a new guarantee of security to trade and industry, and to encourage, by the maintenance of peace, the development of civilization in the countries mentioned in Article I, and placed under the free trade system, the High Signatory Parties to the present Act, and those who shall hereafter adopt it, bind themselves to respect the neutrality of the territories, or portions of territories, belonging to the said countries, comprising therein the territorial waters, so long as the Powers which exercise or shall exercise the rights of sovereignty or Protectorate over those territories, using their option of proclaiming themselves neutral, shall fulfil the duties which neutrality requires.

Article XI

In case a Power exercising rights of sovereignty or Protectorate in the countries mentioned in Article I, and placed under the free trade system, shall be involved in a war, then the High Signatory Parties to the present Act, and those who shall hereafter adopt it, bind themselves to lend their good offices in order that the territories belonging to this Power and comprised in the Conventional free trade zone shall, by the common consent of this Power and of the other belligerent or belligerents, be placed during the war under the rule of neutrality, and considered as belonging to a non-belligerent State, the belligerents thenceforth abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus neutralized, and from using them as a base for warlike operations.

Article XII

In case a serious disagreement originating on the subject of, or in the limits of, the territories mentioned in Article I, and placed under the free trade system, shall arise between any Signatory Powers of the present Act, or the Powers which may become parties to it, these Powers bind themselves, before appealing to arms, to have recourse to the mediation of one or more of the friendly Powers.

In a similar case the same Powers reserve to themselves the option of having recourse to arbitration.


Article XIII

The navigation of the Congo, without excepting any of its branches or outlets, is, and shall remain, free for the merchant ships of all nations equally, whether carrying cargo or ballast, for the transport of goods or passengers. It shall be regulated by the provisions of this Act of Navigation, and by the rules to be made in pursuance thereof.

In the exercise of this navigation the subjects and flags of all nations shall in all respects be treated on a footing of perfect equality, not only for the direct navigation from the open sea to the inland ports of the Congo, and vice versa, but also for the great and small coasting trade, and for boat traffic on the course of the river.

Consequently, on all the course and mouths of the Congo there will be no distinction made between the subjects of riverain States and those of non-riverain States, and no exclusive privilege of navigation will be conceded to companies, corporations or private persons whatsoever.

These provisions are recognized by the Signatory Powers as becoming henceforth a part of international law.

Article XIV

The navigation of the Congo shall not be subject to any restriction or obligation which is not expressly stipulated by the present Act. It shall not be exposed to any landing dues, to any station or depot tax, or to any charge for breaking bulk, or for compulsory entry into port.

In all the extent of the Congo the ships and goods in process of transit on the river shall be submitted to no transit dues, whatever their starting place or destination.

There shall be levied no maritime or river toll based on the mere fact of navigation, nor any tax on goods aboard of ships. There shall only be levied taxes or duties having the character of an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself, to wit:

1. Harbour dues on certain local establishments, such as wharves, warehouses, etc, if actually used.

The tariff of such dues shall be framed according to the cost of constructing and maintaining the said local establishments; and it will be applied without regard to whence vessels come or what they are loaded with.

2. Pilot dues for those stretches of the river where it may be necessary to establish properly qualified pilots.

The tariff of these dues shall be fixed and calculated in proportion to the service rendered.

3. Charges raised to cover technical and administrative expenses incurred in the general interest of navigation, including lighthouse, beacon and buoy duties.

The lastmentioned dues shall be based on the tonnage of vessels as shown by the ship's papers, and in accordance with the rules adopted on the Lower Danube.

The tariffs by which the various dues and taxes enumerated in the three preceding paragraphs shall be levied shall not involve any differential treatment, and shall be officially published at each port.

The Powers reserve to themselves to consider, after the lapse of five years, whether it may be necessary to revise, by common accord, the abovementioned tariffs.

Article XV

And the same rules shall apply to the streams and river as well as the lakes and canals in the territories defined in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article I.

At the same time the powers of the International Commission of the Congo will not extend to the said rivers, streams, lakes and canals, unless with the assent of the States under whose sovereignty they are placed. It is well understood, also, that with regard to the territories mentioned in paragraph 3 of Article I the consent of the Sovereign States owning these territories is reserved.

Article XVI

The roads, railways or lateral canals which may be constructed with the special object of obviating the innavigability or correcting the imperfection of the river route on certain sections of the course of the Congo, its affluents, and other waterways placed under a similar system, as laid down in Article XV, shall be considered in their quality of means of communication as dependencies of this river, and as equally open to the traffic of all nations.

And, as on the river itself, so there shall be collected on these roads, railways and canals only tolls calculated on the cost of construction, maintenance and management, and on the profits due to the promoters.

As regards the tariff of these tolls, strangers and the natives of the respective territories shall be treated on a footing of perfect equality.

Article XVII

There is instituted an International Commission, charged with the execution of the provisions of the present Act of Navigation.

The Signatory Powers of this Act, as well as those who may subsequently adhere to it, may always be represented on the said Commission, each by one delegate. But no delegate shall have more than one vote at his disposal, even in the case of his representing several Governments.

This delegate will be directly paid by his Government. As for the various agents and employees of the International Commission, their remuneration shall be charged to the amount of the dues collected in conformity with paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article XIV.

The particulars of the said remuneration, as well as the number, grade and powers of the agents and employees, shall be entered in the returns to be sent yearly to the Governments represented on the International Commission.

Article XVIII

The members of the International Commission, as well as its appointed agents, are invested with the privilege of inviolability in the exercise of their functions. The same guarantee shall apply to the offices and archives of the Commission.

Article XIX

The International Commission for the Navigation of the Congo shall be constituted as soon as five of the Signatory Powers of the present General Act shall have appointed their delegates. And, pending the constitution of the Commission, the nomination of these delegates shall be notified to the Imperial Government of Germany, which will see to it that the necessary steps are taken to summon the meeting of the Commission.

The Commission will at once draw up navigation, river police, pilot and quarantine rules.

These rules, as well as the tariffs to be framed by the Commission, shall, before coming into force, be submitted for approval to the Powers represented on the Commission. The Powers interested will have to communicate their views with as little delay as possible.

Any infringement of these rules will be checked by the agents of the International Commission wherever it exercises direct authority, and elsewhere by the riverain Power.

In the case of an abuse of power, or of an act of injustice, on the part of any agent or employee of the International Commission, the individual who considers himself to be aggrieved in his person or rights may apply to the consular agent of his country. The latter will examine his complaint, and if he finds it prima facie reasonable he will then be entitled to bring it before the Commission. At his instance then, the Commission, represented by at least three of its members, shall, in conjunction with him, inquire into the conduct of its agent or employee. Should the consular agent look upon the decision of the Commission as raising questions of law (objections de droit), he will report on the subject to his Government, which may then have recourse to the Powers represented on the Commission, and invite them to agree as to the instructions to be given to the Commission.

Article XX

The International Commission of the Congo, charged in terms of Article XVII with the execution of the present Act of Navigation, shall in particular have power-

1. To decide what works are necessary to assure the navigability of the Congo in accordance with the needs of international trade.

On those sections of the river where no Power exercises sovereign rights the International Commission will itself take the necessary measures for assuring the navigability of the river.

On those sections of the river held by a Sovereign Power the International Commission will concert its action (s'entendra) with the riparian authorities.

2. To fix the pilot tariff and that of the general navigation dues as provided for by paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article XIV.

The tariffs mentioned in the first paragraph of Article XIV shall be framed by the territorial authorities within the limits prescribed in the said Article.

The levying of the various dues shall be seen to by the international or territorial authorities on whose behalf they are established.

3. To administer the revenue arising from the application of the preceding paragraph (2).

4. To superintend the quarantine establishment created in virtue of Article XXIV.

5. To appoint officials for the general service of navigation, and also its own proper employees.

It will be for the territorial authorities to appoint sub-inspectors on sections of the river occupied by a Power, and for the International Commission to do so on the other sections.

The riverain Power will notify to the International Commission the appointment of sub-inspectors, and this Power will undertake the payment of their salaries.

In the exercise of its functions, as above defined and limited, the International Commission will be independent of the territorial authorities.

Article XXI

In the accomplishment of its task the International Commission may, if need be, have recourse to the war vessels of the Signatory Powers of this Act, and of those who may in future accede to it, under reserve, however, of the instructions which may be given to the commanders of these vessels by their respective Governments.

Article XXII

The war vessels of the Signatory Powers of this Act that may enter the Congo are exempt from payment of the navigation dues provided for in paragraph 3 of Article XIV; but, unless their intervention has been called for by the International Commission or its agents, in terms of the preceding Article, they shall be liable to the payment of the pilot or harbour dues which may eventually be established.

Article XXIII

With the view of providing for the technical and administrative expenses which it may incur, the International Commission created by Article XVII may, in its own name, negotiate loans to be exclusively guaranteed by the revenues raised by the said Commission.

The decisions of the Commission dealing with the conclusion of a loan must be come to by a majority of two-thirds. It is understood that the Governments represented on the Commission shall not in any case be held as assuming any guarantee, or as contracting any engagement or joint liability (solidarité) with respect to the said loans, unless under special Conventions concluded by them to this effect.

The revenue yielded by the dues specified in paragraph 3 of Article XIV shall bear, as a first charge, the payment of the interest and sinking fund of the said loans, according to agreement with the lenders.

Article XXIV

At the mouth of the Congo there shall be founded, either on the initiative of the riverain Powers, or by the intervention of the International Commission, a quarantine establishment for the control of vessels passing out of as well as into the river.

Later on the Powers will decide whether and on what conditions a sanitary control shall be exercised over vessels engaged in the navigation of the river itself.

Article XXV

The provisions of the present Act of Navigation shall remain in force in time of war. Consequently all nations, whether neutral or belligerent, shall be always free, for the purposes of trade, to navigate the Congo, its branches, affluents and mouths, as well as the territorial waters fronting the embouchure of the river.

Traffic will similarly remain free, despite a state of war, on the roads, railways, lakes and canals mentioned in Articles XV and XVI.

There will be no exception to this principle, except in so far as concerns the transport of articles intended for a belligerent, and in virtue of the law of nations regarded as contraband of war.

All the works and establishments created in pursuance of the present Act, especially the tax collecting offices and their treasuries, as well as the permanent service staff of these establishments, shall enjoy the benefits of neutrality (placés sous le régime de la neutralité), and shall, therefore, be respected and protected by belligerents.



Article XXVI

The navigation of the Niger, without excepting any of its branches and outlets, is and shall remain entirely free for the merchant ships of all nations equally, whether with cargo or ballast, for the transportation of goods and passengers. It shall be regulated by the provisions of this Act of Navigation, and by the rules to be made in pursuance of this Act.

In the exercise of this navigation the subjects and flags of all nations shall be treated, in all circumstances, on a footing of perfect equality, not only for the direct navigation from the open sea to the inland ports of the Niger, and vice versa, but for the great and small coasting trade, and for boat trade on the course of the river.

Consequently, on all the course and mouths of the Niger there will be no distinction made between the subjects of the riverain States and those of non-riverain States; and no exclusive privilege of navigation will be conceded to companies, corporations or private persons.

These provisions are recognized by the Signatory Powers as forming henceforth a part of international law.

Article XXVII

The navigation of the Niger shall not be subject to any restriction or obligation based merely on the fact of navigation.

It shall not be exposed to any obligation in regard to landing-station or depot, or for breaking bulk, or for compulsory entry into port.

In all the extent of the Niger the ships and goods in process of transit on the river shall be submitted to no transit dues, whatever their starting place or destination.

No maritime or river toll shall be levied based on the sole fact of navigation, nor any tax on goods on board of ships. There shall only be collected taxes or duties which shall be an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself. The tariff of these taxes or duties shall not warrant any differential treatment.

Article XXVIII

The affluents of the Niger shall be in all respects subject to the same rules as the river of which they are tributaries.

Article XXIX

The roads, railways or lateral canals which may be constructed with the special object of obviating the innavigability or correcting the imperfections of the river route on certain sections of the course of the Niger, its affluents, branches and outlets, shall be considered, in their quality of means of communication, as dependencies of this river, and as equally open to the traffic of all nations.

And, as on the river itself, so there shall be collected on these roads, railways and canals only tolls calculated on the cost of construction, maintenance and management, and on the profits due to the promoters.

As regards the tariff of these tolls, strangers and the natives of the respective territories shall be treated on a footing of perfect equality.

Article XXX

Great Britain undertakes to apply the principles of freedom of navigation enunciated in Articles XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII and XXIX on so much of the waters of the Niger, its affluents, branches and outlets, as are or may be under her sovereignty or protection.

The rules which she may establish for the safety and control of navigation shall be drawn up in a way to facilitate, as far as possible, the circulation of merchant ships.It is understood that nothing in these obligations shall be interpreted as hindering Great Britain from making any rules of navigation whatever which shall not be contrary to the spirit of these engagements.

Great Britain undertakes to protect foreign merchants and all the trading nationalities on all those portions of the Niger which are or may be under her sovereignty or protection as if they were her own subjects, provided always that such merchants conform to the rules which are or shall be made in virtue of the foregoing.

Article XXXI

France accepts, under the same reservations, and in identical terms, the obligations undertaken in the preceding Articles in respect of so much of the waters of the Niger, its affluents, branches and outlets, as are or may be under her sovereignty or protection.

Article XXXII

Each of the other Signatory Powers binds itself in the same way in case it should ever exercise in the future rights of sovereignty or protection over any portion of the waters of the Niger, its affluents, branches or outlets.

Article XXXIII

The arrangements of the present Act of Navigation will remain in force in time of war. Consequently, the navigation of all neutral or belligerent nationals will be in all time free for the usages of commerce on the Niger, its branches, its affluents, its mouths and outlets, as well as on the territorial waters opposite the mouths and outlets of that river.

The traffic will remain equally free in spite of a state of war on the roads, railways and canals mentioned in Article XXIX.

There will be an exception to this principle only in that which relates to the transport of articles destined for a belligerent, and considered, in virtue of the law of nations, as articles contraband of war.



Article XXXIV

Any Power which henceforth takes possession of a tract of land on the coasts of the African continent outside of its present possessions, or which, being hitherto without such possessions, shall acquire them, as well as the Power which assumes a Protectorate there, shall accompany the respective act with a notification thereof, addressed to the other Signatory Powers of the present Act, in order to enable them, if need be, to make good any claims of their own.

Article XXXV

The Signatory Powers of the present Act recognize the obligation to insure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied by them on the coasts of the African continent sufficient to protect existing rights, and, as the case may be, freedom of trade and of transit under the conditions agreed upon.



Article XXXVI

The Signatory Powers of the present General Act reserve to themselves to introduce into it subsequently, and by common accord, such modifications and improvements as experience may show to be expedient.

Article XXXVII

The Powers who have not signed the present General Act shall be free to adhere to its provisions by a separate instrument.

The adhesion of each Power shall be notified in diplomatic form to the Government of the German Empire, and by it in turn to all the other signatory or adhering Powers.

Such adhesion shall carry with it full acceptance of all the obligations as well as admission to all the advantages stipulated by the present General Act.


The present General Act shall be ratified with as little delay as possible, the same in no case to exceed a year.

It will come into force for each Power from the date of its ratification by that Power.

Meanwhile, the Signatory Powers of the present General Act bind themselves not to take any steps contrary to its provisions.

Each Power will address its ratification to the Government of the German Empire, by which notice of the fact will be given to all the other Signatory Powers of the present Act.

The ratifications of all the Powers will be deposited in the archives of the Government of the German Empire. When all the ratifications shall have been sent in, there will be drawn up a Deposit Act, in the shape of a Protocol, to be signed by the representatives of all the Powers which have taken part in the Conference of Berlin, and of which a certified copy will be sent to each of those Powers.

IN TESTIMONY WHEREOF the several plenipotentiaries have signed the present General Act and have affixed thereto their seals.

DONE at Berlin, the 26th day of February, 1885.

[Signatures not reproduced here.]

Made available on the web by Jim Jones (Copyright 2003, All Rights Reserved) at West Chester University

is a country in Western Europe. The capitol is Berlin.

a small country located on the Atlantic Coast of West Africa, located west of Nigeria. Ghana is bordered on the west by Ivory Coast, in the north by Burkina Faso, the Atlantic Ocean in the south and by Togo on the east. The capitol of Ghana is Accra.





Ghanaian Glass Beads - (from Ghana in West Africa)

XXXXXXXXXXX is a type of grease ink used for drawings. It is colored black so that it is easily seen during application on the limestone, or metal plate.





Green, Jonathan
is an African American artist; painter and book illustrator. Green is a member of the Gullah people of South Carolina. More information can be found in "Gullah Images, The Art of Jonathan Green", with Forward by Pat Conroy, Published by University Of South Carolina Press in 1996.





Gold-Leaf Bronze Substitute Cowrie Coin

hCC111. Late Shang Dynasty (Yin), 1766-1122 BC through early Chou (Zhou) Dynasty, 1122-221 BC, ca 13th-8th Century BC, Gold-leafed bronze substitute for Shell cowrie (Pei), Coole 31-35, broad type 17mm by 24mm. A little crusty in a few spots but most gilding intact and clear, unbroken, RARE, especially this nice, Choice Very Fine....taken from Guy Clark's Ancient Coins and Antiquities Collection





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valley.jpg (2503 bytes)
prints are created from ink trapped in valleys and holes produced on metal plates. Burins, rockers and roulettes are just a few of the tools used in this process to create the valleys and holes needed to trap the ink. See relief printing and lithography.

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Jackson, Jesse
The Rev. Jesse Jackson was a civilrights leader under the leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. He has served as a trouble shooter for the democratic party during several presidential candidate conventions.

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King, Martin Luther Jr.
Was a Baptist minister and African American leader.

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Kuduo Container

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is a Portuguese word for lagoon. It is also the name of the capitol city of Nigeria. The city of Lagos is on an island in the middle of a lagoon.

is steel disk used for grinding the surface of litho stones used in planographic lithography printing and metal plates used in carborgraph intaglio printing. The outer metal sleeve on the handle of a levegator is free allowing the inside handle to rotate and slip freely inside when one tries to swing the levegator. Thus the disc creates a wide circular motion when one swings the handle.

press.jpg (12674 bytes)

(a planographic printing process), was invented by Alois Senefelder of Bavaria, in 1796. Lithography printing process operates under the assumption that water and oil don't mix. Lithography is unlike intaglio printing which prints ink trapped in valleys and holes and relief printing which prints ink resting on hills or crests. Lithothographs printing is done from an even or level plane. See photo-offset lithography printing.

is a term used in Marxist theory to describe the lowest level of the proletariat composing unskilled workers, vagrants, and criminals; characterized by a lack of class consciousness. Most of the lumpens were urban dwellers. "Lack class consciousness" was a clever means by which the communist party would use to disenfranchise this group of people. The lumpenproletariat would not be included in any economic improvements, or uplifting, under a communist government.

Lumpenproletariats are ignored under Capitalism as well.

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Menelik II

In his own words - Menelik II, in a letter to Queen Victoria

- I have no intention at all of being an indifferent spectator, if the distant Powers hold the idea of dividing up Africa, Ethiopia having been for the past fourteen centuries, an island of Christianity in a sea of pagans...

Again in his own words - Menelik II, Mobilization Proclamation

- Enemies have now come upon us to ruin our country and to change our religion. Our enemies have begun the affair by advancing and digging into the country like moles. With the help of God I will not deliver my country to them. Today, you who are strong, give me your strength, and you who are weak, help me by prayer.

Menelik II
Born 1844 & died in 1913. Menelik II descends from an ancient line of kings and queens. His lineage is older than any continuous line known to Europe, or Asia; which would make him the King of Kings during his day. Menelik's heritage begins during the days of Queen Shewan from Sheba, or Southern Yemen and King Solomon, a desendant of King David in Palestine. A union between Solomon and Shewan bought about Menelik I, which Menelik II is direct descendent of. MenieikI founded the kingdom of Etheopia. He took his followers from Southern Yemen and crossed over there by sea.
Menelik became Emperor of Ethiopia in 1889. He was ras (ruler) of Shoa (central Ethiopia), before then. After the death of King Tewodros in (1868) Menelik collaborated with Italians to conquer territory beyond the Kingdom of Ethiopia, thus establishing an Ethiopian Empire. He seized the throne after King Johannes IV died. in 1889. Menelik concluded the Treaty of Uccialli with Italy. When he learned that the Italian version of the treaty made Ethiopia a protectorate of Italy, Menelik denounced the agreement. Italian invasion that followed in (1895-96) was crushed by Menelik’s great victory near Adwa. Italy was forced to renounce all claims to Ethiopia and to pay an indemnity. Menelik took important steps to strengthen and modernize his empire. He made Addis Ababa the capital, constructed a railroad, attempted to end the slave trade, and curbed exploits of the feudal nobility.

Born in 1844, Menelik II was one of the most celebrated of Ethiopia's rulers, and led the most successful campaign of African resistance to repel the onslaught of European colonialism.

Menelik's reign (1889-1913) coincided with the European Scramble for Africa. After serving as governor of Shoa for twenty-five years, Menelik became emperor in 1889. During his reign, he doubled the area he inherited, incorporating vast areas of southern Ethiopia into his domain, mainly through conquest.

Always eager to embrace new technology in his quest to modernize ancient Ethiopia, Menelik's innovations were unprecedented in Ethiopian history. Among these were first and foremost the creation of the capital, Addis Ababa, in the mid 1880s; construction of modern bridges and telegraph lines; concession for a railroad; establishment of the bank of Abyssinia, the first hotel, hospitals, and schools; national currency; mint; a postal system and national newspaper.

Italy, with a colony already established in Eritrea, had designs on Ethiopia. In 1889, Ethiopia and Italy negotiated the Treaty of Wuchale. Written in Amharic and Italian, the most significant article of the treaty was viewed differently by both parties. The Amharic text stated that Italy's services were available to the emperor for all communications with foreign powers, while the Italian text made this compulsory.

Italy applied this article to claim a protectorate over Ethiopia, which was duly recognized by the European powers. To affirm their claim, the Italians, aided and abetted by the French and British, advanced into northern Ethiopia and, in January 1890, occupied the town of Adowa.

While the dispute was being debated, Menelik was simultaneously importing large amounts of arms from France and Russia, and continuing to expand his domain. Finally expressing his disapproval of the Treaty of Wuchale and Italy's fallacious claim, he informed the European powers that "Ethiopia has need of no one, she stretches her hand unto God."

Recognizing his country's sovereignty, religion, and way of life was at stake, Menelik mobilized his army. The confrontation occurred at Adowa on March 1, 1896, where Ethiopia decisively defeated the Italian invaders. It was the first major African victory over an European Army since Hannibal's time two thousand years before. On October 16, 1896, the Italians agreed to The Peace Treaty of Addis Ababa, which nullified the Treaty of Wuchale and recognized the absolute independence of Ethiopia.

Menelik maintained his independence and unified his country by defeating the Europeans. Ethiopia's international prestige in the world was enhanced and its victory over the Europeans provided Africans in the Diaspora with a much-needed source of pride, inspiration and hope.

Menelik displayed great foresight in developing his military strength, which proved to be considerably superior to the Italian army he encountered, and also in using European trade and technology without yielding any political ground. In addition, his diplomatic maneuvers exploited the greed of Italy, France, and Britain and shrewdly played them off against each other.

Taken from

is a form of intaglio printing (ink is trapped in valleys and then transfered to paper). .






Akan Weights & Measurements

Akan Brass Weights





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a small country located on the Atlantic Coast of West Africa. The capitol of Nigeria is Lagos.

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photographic print
Photographs produced by film and paper is a stencil printing process.
photo-offset lithography
This printing process is composed of three parts; three totally different printing process combined into one process: lithography printing, photography printing and off-set printing.
Lithography is the most important part of this printing process. It operates under the assumption that water and oil don't mix. Lithography is unlike intaglio printing which prints ink trapped in valleys and holes and relief printing which prints ink resting on hills or crests. Lithothographs printing is done from an even or level plane.
Photography is the first part of this process, but second in terms of importance. Producing a photography stencil, is the key factor in this process.   Photographs are produced by light sensitive cellulose film and silver coated paper. Today light sensitive digital plates are used to record photographic images. These images are then down loaded from the camera into a computer for processing.
Offset printing is a form of transfer printing. A rubber roller used in transferring the image from a printing plate to paper. Photo

photo-offset printing press
offset.jpg (9440 bytes) this a multiple-color web-fed offset press produced by the Miehle Company. Off set printing is an advanced form of lithography printing. This type of press is far different from the lithography printing presses used in printing from lime stone blocks.[photo credits: "Preparing Art For Printing", by Bernard Stone & Arthur Eckstein, published by Reinhold Book Company in 1965].

is a printing process whereby graphic images are transferred, or printed from a surface that is flat. Planographic printing is done from an even or level plane. Lithography is a planographic printing process. See intaglio printing, stencil printing and relief printing.

Puerto Rico

is derived from a Latin word prae, in front of + eminere, to stand out (see eminent). Notable above all; outstanding.

print original
falls into about 6 different basic categories of printing techniques. The earliest form of printing is probably relief, followed by either stencil, or intaglio. There is planographic printing and transfer. With the arrival of the PC came digital printing. This last form of printing uses combinations of the other 5 forms of printing.



print reproduction
most print reproductions of original art work are produced by photo-offset printing process. Many artist try to pass signed limited additions of this type of work off as originals. As long as the photo portion of the offset is included when producing the art, 9 times out of 10 the work is not original. There are a few artist that draw directly on aluminum and polyester plates; then strap their original plates to rollers on an off-set printer. Their work can be considered original offset printing.
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relief.jpg (4433 bytes)
prints are created from ink deposits resting on hills. An inked roller is passed over the surface of a plate depositing ink only on the raised portions of the plate surface. Next a paper is placed on top of the plate in order to transfer the inked plate image to the surface of the paper. Pressure is placed on the the paper in order to create the transfer of inked plate surface to paper surface. Relief prints are probably the earliest forms of prints produced by humans. See intaglio printing and lithography.

is used in producing burr, or rough texture on a metal plates used in mezzotint printing.

wheels have sharp jagged patterns of points used to make a pitted textures on metal plates used in intaglio printing..





Round Shouldered Spade Money





Round Square Hole Coin





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scraper press
used in lithography printing was invented by Alois Senefelder of Bavaria.

seventy eight recordings- sometimes referred to as 78 rpm platters





Seed Coin from Korea

Front of Coin

Back of Coin
Obverse Side: Sang P'yong T'ong Bo
Notice the pink covering in the field
Reverse Side: Kyun Tang O O
Kyun - Kyunyokchong - Government
Tithe OfficeTang - Equal to O - five
Notice blue covering in the field

Korean 5 Mun seed coin, issued by Government Tithe
Office in 1883, Mandel number 15.11A.5.
Robert Tye described coin as officially clipped.

Weight 7.3 g
Diameter: 32.7 mm

Message from Steve Young (06-Dec-98):

Any seed above the value "one" ones are rare. The clip was put there as though it was probably used as a decorative charm or part of a bigger charm combination. That's a shame someone messed up such a rare coin. I also think it is a charm since there is colored enamel still attached to the obverse and reverse. Thats just my opinion. Whether or not the clip was done at the mint, there's no way to know. As clean as the cut is, it could've been done at the mint, but I don't know. With Korean stuff, you just never know.

Message from Don Pfeifer (02-Jan-99):

I agree with everything that Steve Young says about this coin but I would like to add one small bit of information. That clip at the top is meant to represent a bat. The Korean word for "bat" (Pok) is a homophone for the word "happiness". If you look in Mandels book on Korean Amulets, you will find several different examples of this. Look at #94.12, #94.13, and #94.14. The "O O" or Five Five is a reference to Tano Day. It is one of the largest holidays in traditional Korea. It is held on the fifth day of the fifth month. On this day it was traditional to post paper amulets at the gate to your house. These were normally written in red ink. Also a red seal on a piece of paper was believed to ward off evil spirits. Another custom during Tano Day was to give Fans to friends. It is my own belief that Korean amulets shaped like fans were probably given out on this day, but I have not proof for this. See Mandel amulet book, amulets #39.1 through #39.8 (page 23) and amulet #43.3 (page 25).

from Ancient Chinese Coin Website





is a cut-out of something. It can be either negative, or positive cut-out.
stencil printing
in most printing processes, the negative cut-out is used in making print originals. See intaglio printing, lithography and relief printing.

is an even placement of a set of objects, values, or ideas in a sculpture, painting, or environment in order to create balance. Example: two objects the same size placed the same distance apart to create balance in a composition (see asymmetrical).

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s a Native American name of a princess. Talladega is a story about a tragic love affair. The princess dies and her lover buries her facing up and her body turns into a mountain; Talladega Mountain. People say if you look at the mountain you can see a profile of her face and body turned skyward.

Thoreau, Henry David & "Civil Disobedience"
(see Civil Disobedience)





Tosa Family Coin from Japan

Front of Coin

Back of Coin

Tosa was a lords domain on the island of Shikoku in Japan and it issued many of its own coins between 1866-71. Tosa Tsuuhou coins were modeled after the Tenpou Tsuuhou 100 Mon coin. Tosa also minted a large rectangular coin called a Tosa Kanken which had on its obverse side 100 mon as its value. Its monme coins (units of 1 and 10) are all round. Tosa is present day Kochi prefecture.

Coin images provided by Luke Roberts (book Zuroku Nihon no kahei, vol. 4., published by Touyou keizai shinpousha, 1973).





transfer printing
The best known type of transfer printing is photo-offset printing.


is a type of grease ink used for lithograph drawings. It is colored black so that it is easily seen during application on the limestone, or metal plate.

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Venetian Glass Beads - Cheveron Layered Glass (from Venice Itally)

XXXXXXXXXXX is a type of grease ink used for drawings. It is colored black so that it is easily seen during application on the limestone, or metal plate.

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Williams, Robert Franklin
Author of "Negro With Guns"

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Western Zhou (or Chou) Dynasty (11th Centry B.C. - 771 B.C.)

After defeating the Shang, King Wu founded the Zhou Dynasty, making Haojing his capital city, near the present city of Xian in Shaanxi Province. Historians call this period Western Zhou Dynasty (the 11th century BC - 771 BC)

Political History

Like the Shang kings, the Zhou kings worshipped their ancestors, but they also worshipped Heaven. The Shujing (Book of History), one of the earliest recorded texts, describes the Zhou's version of their history. It assumes a close relationship between Heaven and the king, calling the king "the Son of Heaven." It explains that Heaven gives the king a mandate to rule so long as he does so in the interest of the people. The last Shang king had been decadent and cruel, so Heaven withdrew the Mandate of Heaven from him and entrusted it to the virtuous Zhou kings.

In order to reassure and pacify the people of Shang and consolidate the new regime, the Western Zhou introduced a feudal system. During the Zhou Dynasty, all the land and people were nominally the property of the king. Kings, as supreme rulers, distributed both land and the people on it to their relatives, meritorious ministers and generals founding many small vassal states. These kingdoms had to comply with the orders issued by Zhou emperors. This entailed providing an army to fight for the emperor and regular payment of tribute and homage to the emperor. Each of these vassals could pass his title down to a son, thus making each domain a hereditary vassal state. Within each state, there were noble houses holding hereditary titles. King Wu's enfeoffment of dukes was the first practice of the feudal system during the Western Zhou Dynasty. Under this system, the Western Zhou Dynasty strengthened its rule and became a powerful slave owning country with vast lands.
Bronze Wine Cup

Valuable lessons were learned from the collapse of the Shang. Consequently, Zhou established a complex state machinery to effectively control the entire country. Systematic criminal laws were instituted and a larger standing army was maintained than had been under the rule of the Shang Dynasty.

Economy and Society

The Western Zhou made a further achievement in social economy. Slaves were popularly exploited in pursuit of the production of greater surpluses, thereby creating wealth for their owners. Handcrafts progressed in this period and the bronze industry was especially important. Besides the bronze workshops controlled by the central government, the small kingdoms also had foundries of their own. Bronze products greatly increased in quality, quantity and variety so that their use covered nearly all aspects of life. The Western Zhou Chariot Burial Pit unearthed near Xian exemplifies the high technical standard of bronze production of this period.

The development of the bronze industry also promoted the prosperity of other industries. In agriculture, iron tools and the coupling-plough were brought into use for the first time, this greatly enhanced productivity. Bazaars appeared in some larger towns, where silk, weapons, cattle as well as slaves were traded. In addition, script became more widely used. People not only engraved inscriptions on oracle bones, but also engraved epigraphs on thousands of bronze utensils, recording the social life of that time.

Decline of the Western Zhou

The Zhou kings maintained control over their vassals for more than two centuries. Like the Shang, the Western Zhou achieved a flourishing age during its period of rule. However, as generations passed, vassal lords traded and sold land they had acquired from the Zhou kings. This gradual change in ownership created larger more profitable estates. In turn, this strengthened the position of the feudal lords giving them greater autonomy. As the Zhou kings were no longer the sole possessors of the land, the ties of kingship and vassalage inevitably weakened.

Added to this, although Zhou was the most powerful kingdom at the time, it actually didn't rule the whole of China, which then consisted of a number of quasi-independent principalities. During the reign of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, the central plains had reached the peak of the Bronze Age while the neighboring regions lagged behind. In search of more wealth, the Western Zhou launched many wars against those kingdoms. At the same time, the Quanrong, an ancient minority lived in the north-west, constantly harassed the Zhou, becoming the biggest threat to the Zhou Dynasty.

During his reign King You indulged Baosi, one of his concubines, and this engendered a power struggle within the kingdom. The Chinese idioms "A single smile costs one thousand pieces of gold" and "the sovereign rulers are fooled by the beacon fire" have been passed down to us from the King You's reign.

King You's neglect of duty finally led to the fall of the dynasty. In 771 BC when several of the vassals rebelled, the army of the Quanrong minority took its chance, captured Haojing and killed King You. The Western Zhou Dynasty collapsed.

The next year, in 770 BC, King Ping moved the capital to Luoyi (now Luoyang City in Henan Province). This was the start of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 BC - 221 BC).

information was taken from Warrior Tours - China Travel Guied



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100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Thumb) (Essays) (Think Then Act) (Main) (African Images) (Lithography Process)

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Revised: February 24, 2001.
Copyright © 1997 by Vai Prints & Publications.
All trademarks or product names mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.